Archaeology in the News

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by UncleBob » Tue Oct 30, 2018 8:27 am

"One man's theology is another man's belly laugh." - Robert A. Heinlein

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by sweetandsour » Tue Oct 30, 2018 9:41 am

Cool. Those PNW Indians were/are pretty cool folks.
The object of a New Year is not that we should have a new year, but rather that we should have a new soul.

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by UncleBob » Tue Oct 30, 2018 10:05 am

sweetandsour wrote:
Tue Oct 30, 2018 9:41 am
Cool. Those PNW Indians were/are pretty cool folks.
I was surprised that the prevailing belief was that the PNW folks got tobacco from the Europeans to begin with.
"One man's theology is another man's belly laugh." - Robert A. Heinlein

"Many of the points here, taken to their logical conclusions, don't hold up to logic; they're simply Godded-up ways of saying "I don't like that." - Skip

"Get your facts first, then you can distort them as you please." -Mark Twain

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by durangopipe » Tue Oct 30, 2018 10:28 am

UncleBob wrote:
Tue Oct 30, 2018 10:05 am
sweetandsour wrote:
Tue Oct 30, 2018 9:41 am
Cool. Those PNW Indians were/are pretty cool folks.
I was surprised that the prevailing belief was that the PNW folks got tobacco from the Europeans to begin with.
Me too.
I always thought they got tobacco from the Tinder Box in Tacoma
Nothing distinguishes more clearly conditions in a free country from those in a country under arbitrary government than the observance in the former of the great principles known as the Rule of Law.

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by UncleBob » Tue Oct 30, 2018 11:37 am

durangopipe wrote:
Tue Oct 30, 2018 10:28 am
UncleBob wrote:
Tue Oct 30, 2018 10:05 am
sweetandsour wrote:
Tue Oct 30, 2018 9:41 am
Cool. Those PNW Indians were/are pretty cool folks.
I was surprised that the prevailing belief was that the PNW folks got tobacco from the Europeans to begin with.
Me too.
I always thought they got tobacco from the Tinder Box in Tacoma
Ah yes! The Golden Age of Pipe Smoking!
"One man's theology is another man's belly laugh." - Robert A. Heinlein

"Many of the points here, taken to their logical conclusions, don't hold up to logic; they're simply Godded-up ways of saying "I don't like that." - Skip

"Get your facts first, then you can distort them as you please." -Mark Twain

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by wosbald » Wed Nov 21, 2018 12:26 pm

+JMJ+

First Temple Beka Weight Unearthed in Jerusalem Sifting Project
Image
‘Beka’ weight from the First Temple period (Photo Credit: Eliyahu Yanai, City of David

During the sifting of archaeological soil in the Emek Tzurim National Park, under the auspices of the City of David Foundation, a tiny stone weight engraved with ancient Hebrew letters spelling the word Beka was unearthed.

The weight, which dates back to the First Temple period, was found in archaeological soil originating from the foot of Robinson’s Arch at the Western Wall, just north of the City of David. The soil was transferred from the excavation area to the sifting site in the Emek Tzurim National Park for careful sorting, during which the weight was uncovered.

The Beka weight was used to evaluate the half-shekel donation brought by the Jewish people for both the maintenance of the Temple and as a census, as described in the book of Exodus 38:26: “One Beka per head; [that is,] half a shekel, according to the holy shekel, for each one who goes through the counting, from twenty years old and upward, for six hundred three thousand, five hundred and fifty [people].”

Image
‘Beka’ weight from the First Temple period (Photo Credit: Eliyahu Yanai, City of David)

Archaeologist Eli Shukron, who directed the excavations on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority, explained: “When the half-shekel tax was brought to the Temple during the First Temple period, there were no coins, so they used silver ingots. In order to calculate the weight of these silver pieces they would put them on one side of the scales and on the other side they placed the Beka weight. The Beka was equivalent to the half-shekel, which every person from the age of twenty years and up was required to bring to the Temple.”

It should be noted that the biblical shekel weighed 11.33 grams. According to Shukron, “Beka weights from the First Temple period are rare; however this weight is even rarer, because the inscription on it is written in mirror script and the letters are engraved from left to right instead of right to left. It can therefore be concluded that the artist who engraved the inscription on the weight specialized in engraving seals, since seals were always written in mirror script so that once stamped the inscription would appear in regular legible script. “Apparently, the seal craftsman got confused when he engraved the inscription on the weight and mistakenly used mirror script as he was used to doing. From this mistake we can learn about the general rule: The artists who engraved weights during the First Temple period were the same artists who specialized in creating seals.”

[…]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PxDzd5r7zj8

[…]

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by tuttle » Tue Feb 05, 2019 9:34 am

"The Evangelium has not abrogated legends; it has hallowed them" -JRR Tolkien

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by wosbald » Tue Apr 23, 2019 10:17 am

+JMJ+

England’s Jesuit-run Stonyhurst College yields its mystical treasures [In-Depth]
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St. Thomas More. (Credit: CNA)

CLITHEROE, United Kingdom — Through the wide windows of a rambling but stately grey stone building, the northern Lancashire countryside sweeps toward the Irish Sea in a maze of fields and woodlands.

Inside, spring sunlight plays over shelves and glass cases, containing faded books and ancient artifacts amassed over four centuries.

When Stonyhurst College was founded at Saint-Omer in the Spanish Netherlands by the recusant Jesuit Father Robert Persons in 1593, persecuted Catholic priests faced a mandatory death sentence if caught ministering in England.

More than four centuries later, Stonyhurst, the world’s oldest Jesuit school, houses a remarkable collection of relics relating to the country’s many martyrs.

“Many things were being destroyed in Reformation England, so when Catholic boys came abroad to the school, they’d bring vestments, manuscripts and precious objects for safe keeping,” explained Jan Graffius, the collection’s curator.

“This makes us part of the story and means we know what it was like to be targeted,” she said. “At a time when people know little about the struggles of the past, these relics provide a graphic reminder of what Catholics faced in upholding their faith.”

Under a nearby glass cover lie two time-worn hats once sported by St. Thomas More (1478-1535), the English chancellor beheaded for refusing to accept his church’s break with Rome. There’s also a red velvet Book of Hours carried by Mary Queen of Scots to her execution at Fotheringay Castle in 1587.

Upstairs, a lavish Florentine cloak worn by King Henry VIII during his 1520 meeting with the French king at the Field of the Cloth of Gold is displayed alongside the rope which bound St. Edmund Campion, the Jesuit who was hanged, drawn and quartered for high treason at Tyburn in 1581.

In 1794, when the school was forced to flee the French Revolution, its collection was already extensive. It was lucky to have the current site donated by a former student, Thomas Weld, father of Cardinal Thomas Weld (1773-1837).

The Stonyhurst Collection, now being opened to visitors, has continued expanding.

Its earliest exhibits include a piece of jawbone, documented to early medieval times, said to come from St. Stephen. its most recent relic is a piece of the bloodied vestment worn by St. Oscar Romero of El Salvador when he was assassinated March 24, 1980, while celebrating Mass.

“The idea is to provide an accessible public resource with a narrative tracing back 2,000 years,” Graffius said.

“These objects tell their own stories, and people engaging with them can feel uncomfortable, even revolted. But no one remains indifferent and everyone has questions to ask,” she added.

[…]

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"[T]he emergency of irregular migration has to be met with justice, solidarity and mercy. Forms of collective expulsion, which do not allow for the suitable treatment of individual cases, are unacceptable."
— Pope Francis, Morocco

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by tuttle » Wed Oct 16, 2019 12:34 pm

"The Evangelium has not abrogated legends; it has hallowed them" -JRR Tolkien

"Better to die cheerfully with the aid of a little tobacco, than to live disagreeably and remorseful without." -CS Lewis

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by wosbald » Wed Oct 23, 2019 6:35 am

+JMJ+


► Show Spoiler

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"[T]he emergency of irregular migration has to be met with justice, solidarity and mercy. Forms of collective expulsion, which do not allow for the suitable treatment of individual cases, are unacceptable."
— Pope Francis, Morocco

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by tuttle » Wed Oct 23, 2019 8:03 am

wosbald wrote:
Wed Oct 23, 2019 6:35 am
+JMJ+
► Show Spoiler
:chili:

Thanks!!!
► Show Spoiler
"The Evangelium has not abrogated legends; it has hallowed them" -JRR Tolkien

"Better to die cheerfully with the aid of a little tobacco, than to live disagreeably and remorseful without." -CS Lewis

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by wosbald » Tue Nov 05, 2019 7:58 am


ImageImage

"[T]he emergency of irregular migration has to be met with justice, solidarity and mercy. Forms of collective expulsion, which do not allow for the suitable treatment of individual cases, are unacceptable."
— Pope Francis, Morocco

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by wosbald » Sun Apr 05, 2020 12:41 pm

+JMJ+

During plague, Catholic Church waived taxes, other requirements
Image
This painting by French artist Josse Lieferinxe depicts an intercession by St. Sebastian during an outbreak of the plague. Born in the third century, he was martyred around the year 288 during the reign of the Roman emperor Diocletian. A bishop in Florence, Italy, had an altar built in honor of St. Sebastian as a means to stop the Black Death. (Credit: CNS photo/courtesy The Walters Art Museum)

WASHINGTON, D.C. — Correspondence can reveal a lot about periods of history and the letters written by popes during the Black Death are no exception.

These documents, often responses to questions, provide a window into a long-ago era that is getting renewed attention amid today’s coronavirus pandemic.

It turns out at least 206,516 letters were sent from the papal offices in Avignon, France, during the 70 years of the Avignon papacy when seven consecutive popes lived in Avignon instead of Vatican City from 1309 to 1377.

The Black Death was right in the middle of this time period: from 1347 to 1353.

Joelle Rollo-Koster, professor of medieval history at the University of Rhode Island in Kingston, spoke to Catholic News Service March 27 after spending a few hours reading through some of these papal correspondences in Latin on a database from the French School of Rome’s Research Center, through her university.

[…]

When parish priests or bishops died during the plague, for example, a parishioner would write to the pope asking for someone to be in charge. Although this initial letter of request is not available, the response often clearly indicates in very specific details who died, where and when they died and if they were bishops, priests, monks or cloistered sisters.

Rollo-Koster said the letters also reveal the church’s “stimulus plan” announcing tax waivers to those who requested it. The church at that time imposed separate taxes from the government, requiring church members to tithe one-tenth of their earned income.

She said the church’s economic response to the plague was to redistribute funds, not tax people as much or allow for a deferred payment.

Because there was a clergy shortage with so many people dying, Catholics also wrote letters to popes requesting that married men be allowed to be priests, which was permitted under some circumstances, provided the priest led a chaste life.

Popes also granted waivers for people to marry within families, she said, allowing marriages between second and third cousins.

Letters also reveal indulgences or absolutions of sin for those who died of the plague without receiving last rites — which at times covered entire cities. Requests for these blessings were written by remaining survivors.

What people don’t realize, the historian said, is that there are a lot of documents from the Middle Ages. “We are not in the dark,” about this time, she said, “but people don’t know how to read” what’s available.

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"[T]he emergency of irregular migration has to be met with justice, solidarity and mercy. Forms of collective expulsion, which do not allow for the suitable treatment of individual cases, are unacceptable."
— Pope Francis, Morocco

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by wosbald » Fri Apr 24, 2020 11:30 am

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Melting Ice Reveals a “Lost” Viking-Era Pass in Norway’s Mountains [In-Depth]
Image
Wooden bit for goat kids and lambs to prevent them suckling their mother, because the milk was
processed for human consumption. It was found in the pass area at Lendbreen in Norway and made from juniper. Such bits were used locally until the 1930s, but this specimen is radiocarbon-dated to the 11th century A.D. (Credit: Espen Finstad)


Artifacts show people used the route for 1,000 years—then abandoned it, possibly amid a plague.

The mountains northwest of Oslo are some of Europe’s highest, and they are covered with snow throughout the year. Norwegians call them the Jotunheimen, meaning the home of the jötnar—the giants of Norse mythology.

But years of warm weather have now melted much of that snow and ice, revealing a mountain pass that mere mortals traversed for more than 1,000 years—and then abandoned about 500 years ago. Archaeologists working along the ancient, high-altitude route have discovered hundreds of artifacts that indicate people used it to cross a mountain ridge from the late Roman Iron Age and through the medieval period. But it fell into disuse, perhaps because of worsening weather and economic changes—with the latter possibly brought about by the devastating plague of the mid-1300s.

Researchers say the pass, which crosses the Lendbreen ice patch near the alpine village of Lom, was once a cold-weather route for farmers, hunters, travelers and traders. It was mainly used in late winter and early summer, when several feet of snow covered the rough terrain.

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Possible stylus made of birchwood. It was found in the Lendbreen pass area and radiocarbon-dated to about A.D. 1100. (Credit: Espen Finstad)

A few modern roads go through neighboring mountain valleys, but the winter pathway over Lendbreen had been forgotten. The four-mile route, which reaches an altitude of more than 6,000 feet, is now marked only by ancient cairns, piles of reindeer antlers and bones, and the foundations of a stone shelter. An artifact found in 2011 led to the lost path’s rediscovery, and research published on Wednesday in Antiquity details its unique archaeology.

Years of combing the pass’s ice and snow have uncovered more than 800 artifacts, including shoes, pieces of rope, parts of an ancient wooden ski, arrows, a knife, horseshoes, horse bones and a broken walking stick with a runic inscription thought to say “Owned by Joar”—a Nordic name. “The travelers lost or discarded a wide variety of objects, so you never know what you are going to find,” says archaeologist Lars Pilø, co-director of the Secrets of the Ice Glacier Archaeology Program, a collaboration between Norway’s Innlandet County Council and the University of Oslo’s Museum of Cultural History. Some of these items, such as a Viking mitten and the remains of an ancient sled, have not been found anywhere else.

[…]

Image
Snowshoe for a horse found during the 2019 fieldwork at Lendbreen. It has not yet been radiocarbon-dated. Credit: Espen Finstad)

[…]

Image
Tinderbox found on the surface of the ice at Lendbreen during the 2019 fieldwork. It has not yet been radiocarbon-dated. (Credit: Espen Finstad)

[…]

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"[T]he emergency of irregular migration has to be met with justice, solidarity and mercy. Forms of collective expulsion, which do not allow for the suitable treatment of individual cases, are unacceptable."
— Pope Francis, Morocco

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by wosbald » Sat May 09, 2020 10:28 am

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Polish historian questions German researcher’s claims about wartime pope [In-Depth]
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Pope Pius XII gives a blessing at the end of a radio message Sept. 1, 1943. (Credit: CNS photo)

A top Polish historian has questioned claims by German researchers that newly opened Vatican archives contain information damning the role played by Pope Pius XII during World War II.

“This team has the advantage of having been to these archives, and we must face the truth calmly if some major new discovery is made,” said Jan Zaryn, one of Poland’s foremost church historians.

“But I’ve never personally encountered a situation in which 11 volumes of material, published over two decades, are suddenly countermanded by a single document, found after a few days’ research.”

Father Hubert Wolf, a professor at the University of Munster, Germany, said that, after an early March visit to the Vatican Apostolic Archives, his team had found proof that the Vatican knew of the Nazi mass killing of Jews but denied it to diplomats.

In a May 1 interview with Catholic News Service, Zaryn said diplomatic sources had long confirmed that the pope, with Allied governments, had learned of the Holocaust by late 1942, adding that St. Paul VI had agreed to publish wartime letters and documents from the archives early in order to “end the campaigns” against his predecessor.

“In his 1942 Christmas message, Pius XII condemned the mass murders; although he did this in his own language and didn’t mention Germans and Jews by name, the message was censored by the Third Reich, since it was obvious what the pope was referring to,” said Zaryn, a former senator and expert with Poland’s National Remembrance Institute.

“When the Germans entered Italy and occupied Rome, it was clear that words of public condemnation would merely heighten dangers that the Vatican itself would be seized, compromising the rescue of Jews. This is confirmed by numerous documents,” Zaryn said.

The director of the German Historical Institute in Rome, Martin Baumeister, also warned against “sensational reports,” telling Germany’s Catholic news agency, KNA, that any material would have to be “compared, checked and weighed to ensure the new knowledge is useful.”

Wolf headed a team of seven from the University of Munster’s theology faculty to the Vatican, after its Pius XII archive, containing at least 200,000 boxes with over 2 million documents, was opened to historians March 2 after nine years’ preparation.

The archive was closed a few days later due to Italy’s coronavirus pandemic, forcing the team to return home.

[…]

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"[T]he emergency of irregular migration has to be met with justice, solidarity and mercy. Forms of collective expulsion, which do not allow for the suitable treatment of individual cases, are unacceptable."
— Pope Francis, Morocco

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by wosbald » Wed May 13, 2020 9:49 am

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Catholic priests, nuns were among those killed by Nazis
Image
The watchtower and barbed wire fence are seen at the memorial site of the former Nazi concentration camp, Dachau. (Credit: CNS photo/KNA)

WARSAW, Poland — The Nazis’ systematic persecution and genocide led to the deaths of 6 million Jews in Europe, but Catholic priests and nuns were also among their victims.

Half of all Poland’s Catholic priests, monks and nuns suffered repression during the six years of World War II, with more than 2,800 killed at Nazi and Soviet hands. Researchers like Anna Jagodzinska of Poland’s National Remembrance Institute say clergy were particularly targeted as upholders of national culture and identity.

Of the nearly 2,800 clergy of all denominations incarcerated at the Nazi concentration camp of Dachau, 1,773 were priests from Poland, of whom 868 were killed. Others were subjected to exhausting labor and pseudo-medical experiments.

Despite the horrors, many priests witnessed to the faith by hearing confessions and staging secret Masses, also offering practical and spiritual support to fellow inmates.

Catholic clergy of various nationalities died as martyrs at other Nazi-run camps, including the largest, Auschwitz-Birkenau, whose 1.2 million mostly Jewish victims included St. Maximilian Kolbe and St. Edith Stein, also known as St. Teresa Benedicta of the Cross.

[…]

Research on the wartime martyrs was encouraged by St John Paul II, not least in his 1994 apostolic letter, “Tertio Millennio Adveniente,” which compared them to the holiness of the initial Christians.

In St. John Paul’s native Poland, which lost a fifth of its population under Nazi occupation, including 90 percent of its 3 million-strong Jewish minority, the National Remembrance Institute has worked with historians across Europe to build up a database of victims.

At least 1.8 million Poles were also sent to Soviet labor camps by Soviet occupation forces; many Catholic clergy who survived Nazi repression later died at communist hands.

“While the Nazis eliminated clergy as a barrier to Germanization, later communist governments prohibited any acknowledgment of Catholic martyrs to aid their own anti-church campaign,” Jagodzinska told Catholic News Service.

“Martyrdom is always martyrdom, whenever people die for their faith, and their stories still attract great public interest, while much material still awaits study for handing on to the next generation,” she said.

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"[T]he emergency of irregular migration has to be met with justice, solidarity and mercy. Forms of collective expulsion, which do not allow for the suitable treatment of individual cases, are unacceptable."
— Pope Francis, Morocco

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by wosbald » Mon Jun 22, 2020 9:55 am

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Intra-Thread Trackbacks: pg 9

Inter-Thread Trackbacks:
"The Catholic Thread": pg 130



Corrected history: Authors debunk myths tied to church controversies [In-Depth]
Image
The signature of astronomer Galileo Galilei from the records of his trial is seen on a document in the Vatican Apostolic Archives. A new book, "Vatican Secret Archives: Unknown Pages of Church History," looks at various historical episodes in the history of the church by consulting documents housed in the Vatican Apostolic Archives. (Credit: CNS photo/Vatican Apostolic Archives)

ROME — The Inquisition, the Crusades, the trial of the Knights Templar, the condemnation of Galileo Galilei and the role of Pope Pius XII during World War II are just a few “hot” historical events in the life of the church that can still today ignite controversy and fiery debate.

However, most people only have a vague notion of what those events were about, with facts colored or clouded by political censorship, social biases and urban legends fueled by fictionalized accounts made popular in film and other media.

Grzegorz Gorny and Janusz Rosikon — two Polish journalists — wanted to debunk some of the myths and fill in the gaps with their illustrated book, Vatican Secret Archives: Unknown Pages of Church History, which was published in English by Ignatius Press.

After co-authoring a number of books on such themes as St. Faustina Kowalska, the relics of Christ and the events at Fatima, “we decided to familiarize people with the turbulent history of this extraordinary institution (the Vatican archives) and with various controversial episodes regarding the history of the church as seen through the prism of the documents housed in the Vatican Secret Archives,” Gorny told Catholic News Service in an email response to questions.

Image
This is the cover of the book, “Vatican Secret Archives: Unknown Pages of Church History,” by Grzegorz Gomy and Janusz Rosikon. The book looks at various historical episodes in the history of the church by consulting documents housed in the Vatican Apostolic Archives. (Credit: CNS photo/courtesy Ignatius Press)

To learn from and assess the past correctly, “one must first thoroughly and accurately ascertain the facts,” which is why the two journalists visited what are now called the Vatican Apostolic Archives and others. They also met with numerous historians to look at controversial figures and events from a different point of view, they said in the book’s introduction.

[…]

The book’s release was timed to coincide with the March opening of the Vatican archival material relating to the wartime period under Pope Pius XII. The last chapter is devoted to how the pope became the center of controversy with accusations he did not say enough publicly against Nazi atrocities and to what Jesuit historian, Father Peter Gumpel, and others have found in available archives.

“There’s just no question that that pope has been terribly slandered,” said Vivian Dudro, senior editor at Ignatius Press.

“But, how do you interpret his silence? How are you going to weigh the man’s actions when so many of them were deliberately kept secret for reasons of safety and security of the people he was trying to help? When someone’s been silent and his actions have been covered up, how are you supposed to know what he did?” she said.

Historians expect it will take years of combing through the Vatican’s newly available documents to get an even better and clearer understanding of what happened and why.

“History teaches us that life is the art of making decisions,” Gorny said, so the book describes the people “responsible for the fate of large communities, people who had to make decisions between, for example, security and freedom, between a greater and a lesser evil.”

Dudro said the authors aren’t engaged in “church triumphalism,” but instead show “the good, the bad and the ugly on the part of players on the church’s side or in the church’s interest.”

[…]

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"[T]he emergency of irregular migration has to be met with justice, solidarity and mercy. Forms of collective expulsion, which do not allow for the suitable treatment of individual cases, are unacceptable."
— Pope Francis, Morocco

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by wosbald » Thu Dec 17, 2020 11:33 pm


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"[T]he emergency of irregular migration has to be met with justice, solidarity and mercy. Forms of collective expulsion, which do not allow for the suitable treatment of individual cases, are unacceptable."
— Pope Francis, Morocco

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by wosbald » Sat Dec 26, 2020 8:44 am

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Jewish ritual bath dating to time of Jesus found in Garden of Gethsemane [In-Depth]
Image
Photo of the excavation of a Byzantine Church in the Garden of Gethsemane carried out jointly by the Israel Antiquities Authority and students from the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum. (Credit: Yaniv Berman/Courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority)

A ritual bath dating to the time of Jesus has been uncovered on the Mount of Olives at the site tradition says is the Garden of Gethsemane, where Jesus experienced the Agony in the Garden before his arrest, trial, and crucifixion.

Gethsemane means “oil press” in Hebrew, which archeologists said might explain the find.

“According to the Jewish law, when you are producing wine or olive oil, you need to be purified,” said Amit Re’em of the Israel Antiquities Authority during a press conference on Monday.

“So, there is a high probability that during the time of Jesus, at this place was an oil press,” he said.

Re’em said this was the first archeological evidence linking the site to the biblical story that made it famous.

“Despite there being several excavations in the place since 1919 and beyond, and that there were several findings — from the Byzantine and Crusader eras, and others — there has not been one piece of evidence from the time of Jesus. Nothing! And then, as an archaeologist, there arises the question: Is there evidence of the New Testament story, or maybe it happened elsewhere?” he told the Times of Israel.

[…]

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Second Temple-era ritual bath that was discovered during construction work on a modern tunnel under the Church of Gethsemane. (Credit: Yaniv Berman/Israel Antiquities Authority)

The archeologist said that ritual baths are not uncommon to find in Israel, but finding one in the middle of a field implicitly means it was used for ritual purity purposes in the context of agriculture.

“Most of the ritual baths of the period of the Second Temple have been found in private homes and public buildings, but some have been discovered close to farms and tombs, in which case the ritual bath is outside. The discovery of this bath, not accompanied by buildings, probably attests to the existence of a farm here 2000 years ago, which perhaps produced oil or wine,” Re’em said.

The find was made during the construction of a tunnel linking the Church of Gethsemane — also known as the Church of the Agony or Church of All Nations — to a new visitors’ center.

[…]

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Photo of the excavation of a Byzantine Church in the Garden of Gethsemane carried out jointly by the Israel Antiquities Authority and students from the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum. (Credit: Yaniv Berman/Courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority)

[…]

The archeologists also found the remains of a large medieval hospice or monastery next to the Byzantine church. The structure had a sophisticated plumbing system and two large tanks six or seven meters deep, adorned with crosses.

David Yeger of the Israel Antiquities Authority said the discovery showed that Christians were coming to the Holy Land even under Muslim rule.

“It is interesting to see that the church was being used, and may even have been founded, at the time when Jerusalem was under Muslim rule, showing that Christian pilgrimages to Jerusalem continued during this period as well,” he said.

Re’em said the structure was likely destroyed in 1187, when the local Muslim ruler razed the churches on the Mount of Olives to provide material to fortify the city walls.

Franciscan Father Francesco Patton, the head of the Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land, said the excavations “confirm the ancient nature of the Christian memory and tradition linked with this site.”

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Franciscan Father Francesco Patton, Custos of the Holy Land, next to the ancient ritual bath. (Credit: Yoli Schwartz/Israel Antiquities Authority)

During the press conference, he said Gethsemane is a place of prayer, of violence, and of reconciliation.

“It is a place of prayer because here Jesus would come to pray, and it is the place where he also prayed after the last supper with his disciples just before he was arrested. In this place millions of pilgrims every year stop to pray in order to learn and to place their will in tune with the will of God. This is also a place of violence, since here Jesus was betrayed and arrested. Finally, it is a place of reconciliation, because here Jesus refused to make use of violence in order to react to his unjust arrest,” Patton said.

Re’em said the excavation at Gethsemane is “a prime example of Jerusalem’s archaeology at its best, in which various traditions and beliefs are combined with archaeology and historical evidence.”

“The recently discovered archaeological remains will be incorporated in the visitors’ center being built at the site and will be exhibited to tourists and pilgrims, who we hope will soon be returning to visit Jerusalem,” the archeologist said.

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"[T]he emergency of irregular migration has to be met with justice, solidarity and mercy. Forms of collective expulsion, which do not allow for the suitable treatment of individual cases, are unacceptable."
— Pope Francis, Morocco

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Re: Archaeology in the News

Post by wosbald » Thu Jan 21, 2021 10:01 am

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In Living Color: Georgia Before The Soviets Arrived [In-Depth]
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Photo: Sergei Prokudin-Gorsky (U.S. Library of Congress)

The people and spectacular cityscapes of tsarist Georgia captured in vivid color by a world famous photographer.

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Visitors to a spring in Borjomi between 1905 and 1912. Some in the group have cups in hand after drinking the “therapeutic” water the town is world famous for.

This is one of more than 100 images made by the Russian photographer Sergei Prokudin-Gorsky on the territory of today’s Georgia — then a part of the Russian Empire. The astonishing color photos were made shortly before Vladimir Lenin’s revolutionaries seized power in Russia in 1917 and, later, sent their conquering Red Army to impose communist rule over the Caucasus.

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Boys wearing military caps squint into the evening sun as Prokudin-Gorsky works in Gagra.

Prokudin-Gorsky (1863–1944) first traveled through the Caucasus with his camera in 1905, then returned to the sun-drenched region in 1912 as one of the greatest early practitioners of color photography.

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A freshly caught tub gurnard fish, which Prokudin-Gorsky called a “sea rooster,” in Batumi

Prokudin-Gorsky perfected a complex early method of color photography that required three separate images of each scene to be shot, with color filters placed over the lens. When the three black-and-white photos were sandwiched together and had red, green, and blue light shone through them, a color image could be projected.

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Workers prepare bottles of Borjomi's fizzy, slightly salty mineral water for transport.

Although he worked in at least 16 countries, more than one-quarter of the photos Prokudin-Gorsky took outside of his native Russia were made on the territory of today’s Georgia.

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Tbilisi (known internationally as Tiflis until 1936) photographed from St. David's Church. The population of the city when this photo was taken more than a century ago was about 160,000.

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A man holding some clippers poses next to windmill palms near Batumi. Fibers from the palms can be used for making rope, sacks, and coarse cloth.

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A white-bearded mullah with a group of his students near Batumi. The Black Sea city was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1547 and many local groups converted to Islam before Batumi was retaken by Russian and Georgian forces in 1878.

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A view over Sukhumi with some steamships anchored in its harbor

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A popular spring in a forest likely near Borjomi. The spring is covered in graffiti, mostly people’s names.

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The Novy Afon monastery, which was built in the late 1800s by Russian monks. The view is looking south down the Black Sea coastline toward Batumi.

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A worker poses in a grove of bamboo trees near Batumi. With its balmy, subtropical climate, various exotic crops could be grown along the Black Sea coast that would not survive elsewhere in the Russian Empire. Bamboo was used largely to make furniture.

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Bamboo trunks lay inside steam tubes in a workshop near Batumi. After steaming, the bamboo would soften enough to be curved into the shapes needed to make furniture.

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A Georgian woman poses in her finery at an unknown location.

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Oil storage tanks stand in the baking sun in Batumi. The city was booming economically after a pipeline -- the world's longest at the time -- was completed in 1906 that ran 885 kilometers from the abundant oil fields of Baku, the Azerbaijani capital, to Batumi. Tankers in the Black Sea port then shipped the oil products to Western markets.

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A man pauses mid-cigarette next to a crop of plants in the Batumi Botanical Gardens.

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A tidy homestead along a “highway” running toward the Black Sea coastline. The photo was taken from a hilltop overlooking the village known today as Bzyb, in Georgia's breakaway Abkhazia region.

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"Study of a girl" on a bright summer day

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A clifftop house in Tbilisi with what appears to be a precarious pathway leading down to the river and a boat. A pipe on the right is dribbling wastewater into the Mtkvari River.

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Boats sit idle along the seashore near Batumi.

After the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, Prokudin-Gorsky fled Russia and eventually settled in Paris.

Soon after his death in 1944, the U.S. Library Of Congress purchased 1,902 images from the great photographer’s relatives — including 139 taken on the territory of today’s Georgia.

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"[T]he emergency of irregular migration has to be met with justice, solidarity and mercy. Forms of collective expulsion, which do not allow for the suitable treatment of individual cases, are unacceptable."
— Pope Francis, Morocco

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